Sunday, December 29, 2019

Fluctuating Fertility Essay examples - 2563 Words

1. (25%) Below are census data showing labor force participation of women in the U.S., overall and by age group, from the Censuses of 1950 to 2010. Participation Rate (percent) 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Female Total (16+) 33.9 37.7 43.3 51.5 57.5 59.9 58.6 20 to 24 years 46.0 46.1 75.5 68.9 71.3 73.1 68.3 25 to 34 years 34.0 36.0 45.0 65.5 73.5 76.1 74.7 35 to 44 years 39.1 43.4 51.1 65.5 76.4 77.2 75.2 45 to 54 years 37.9 49.8 54.4 59.9 71.2 76.8 75.7 55 to 64 years 27.0 37.2 43.0 41.3 45.2 51.9 60.2 65 years and over 40.8 27.1 19.8 8.1 8.6 9.4 13.8 Graph two sets of labor force participation profiles for women aged 20-64, where age group is on the†¦show more content†¦2. (10%) Claudia Goldin, in her paper on â€Å"The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women’s Employment, Education, and Family,† emphasizes the importance of women’s expanded horizons. She notes that â€Å"By expanded horizons, I mean that women more accurately anticipated their future work lives.† I also discussed in class evidence pertaining to both the accuracy and the levels of women’s work expectations between the late 1960s and the late 1970s/early-mid 1980s. Given the changing work expectations that Goldin and I discussed, what does human capital theory suggest should be the likely consequences for women’s education, occupations, on-the-job training, and earnings? Do data on these variables support the implications of human capital theory? As women increase their attachment to the job, they are expected to be work more in the labor market. The human capital perspective focus this on three aspects which all correlated to the continuity of participation of women in labor market. First, women who experience a discontinuous working period due to child may result less working experience, this would cause them to have less training on the job and therefore give them a lower earning. Second, if women leave the labor market periodically, it would result a depreciation of human capital, which means women who come back to the laborShow MoreRelatedThesis, Term Paper, Essay, Research Paper21993 Words   |  88 Pagespregnancy despite the intervention strategies that have been put in place. In 1990 approximately 530,000 teenagers in the United States became pregnant, 51% of whom gave birth (Coley Chase-Lansdale, 1998). Available literature suggests that fertility rates in developing countries have declined in the past two decades (Dickson, 2002; Caldwell Caldwell, 2002). It is argued that due to changing socio-political circumstances, women have reassessed the timing of childbirth and the role of motherhoodRead MoreSurrogacy : Traditional And Gestational Surrogacy2000 Words   |  8 Pagesinterview that she believes that surrogacy is the equivalent of â€Å"baby buy and trading† (Rustin 2015). She expanded on the idea by informing listeners that in countries such as India, Thailand, Nepal, Russia and Mexico, the surrogacy industry was fluctuating because of the amount of poor and uneducated women stationed there. Women in these countries were more likely to agree because of their need for money and wealthy people had no problem paying them to go through this process. With this, the countryRead MoreEconomic Factors That Affect Population Growth1676 Words   |  7 Pagesdraw this essay to a conclusion, summing the discussion within. A nation can experience a series of fluctuations in its total population. According to Barker et al. (2008), the DTM is composed of five stages (the high fluctuating, early expanding, late expanding, and low fluctuating and decline stage). The DTM model explains how birth and death rate changes over time; these changes are entirely dependent upon economic development. For instance, death rates drop rapidly as a country begins to developRead MoreDemographic Winter and Its Effects on the Society Essay3005 Words   |  13 Pagespopulation decline in birth rates. The term nuclear winter, popularized in the 1980s, alluded to the catastrophic environmental impact of a nuclear war. The long-term consequences of demographic winter could be equally devastating (Feder). The Total Fertility Rate, the expected number of children born per woman in her child-bearing years of 2.1, is said to be the point of equilibrium in which a country’s population is neither growing nor decreasing. 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However, surgery may not be affordable for all women and padded bras do not really offer a long-term solution†¦ So how to make your boobs bigger naturally? is there no other way to increase the size of your boobs? Well, the quick answer to that is yes. You will be surprised to learn that eating some foods regularly canRead MoreAdolescence Is The Most Important Stages Of Human Development1282 Words   |  6 Pagesadolescence is crucial because it physically forms the child into an adult. When the child goes through puberty they are metaphorically and literally leaving their childhood behind. Puberty is the stage where children experience growth spurts, fertility, and sexual maturation. This change generally occurs between the ages of 9 to 13 and 11 to 15 for females and males respectively (ReCAPP 2007). When the body is maturing from child to adult, physical features and internal (hormones) features areRead MoreFacial Symmetry and Physical Attractiveness877 Words   |  4 Pagesmale faces were used to demonstrate that symmetric faces possess characteristics that are attractive independent of symmetry. A meta analysis by Moller and Thornhill (1998) supported the prediction that mating success of males is affected by fluctuating asymmetry and the females success in this respect was not related to asymmetry but their sample size focuses on the need to conduct more studies focusing on the females. Kowner (1996a) found out in his research that symmetrical faces with neutralRead MoreCocoa Production in West Africa1588 Words   |  7 Pagesshould be no longer than three months. Annual rainfall greater than 2,500 mm may result in a higher incidence of fungal diseases. Irrigation is rarely used. Cocoa beans are grown on a wide range of soil types but mainly soils with moderate to high fertility are favoured since fertiliser inputs are low. The main requirements are: *1.5 m depth of free draining soil *good moisture holding capacity *pH range from 4.5 to 7.0 preferably close to 6.5 How cocoa is produced The end resultRead MoreProblems That China Is Facing Following One Child Policy Essay2176 Words   |  9 PagesChina’s both fertility rate and birth rate were found decreasing year by year. However, alongside the declining fertility rate, new problems emerge, especially the increased share of the aged population relative to the total population. The briefing paper was organized from four standpoints. The first part showed a broad picture of the changing dynamics of the population growth rate in China from 1979 to 2014. The second part demonstrated changes in both crude birth rate and fertility rate and explored

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